Saturday, 8 March 2014

Why is a traditional English translation of the Roman Canon used in the Ordinariate rite for Mass?

Since the most striking difference for some Anglicans attending Ordinariate Rite Mass for the first time is the use of the Roman Canon in traditional (hieratic) English, I thought that it would be good to have a look again at the Eucharistic Prayer in the very first Book of Common Prayer (1549) in comparison with the present Roman Canon and the Ordinariate rite.




Following is the original text of Cranmer's BCP Eucharistic Prayer in English with comparisons to the English Ordinariate Use Canon, a translation of the Roman Canon which has been used in almost this exact form by Anglo-Catholics for well over 100 years and is found in both the English and American Missals as well as other Anglican books.


* NOTES IN THE TEXT OF THE CANON ARE IN BOLD TYPE.

The BCP canon or eucharistic prayer begins with a rubric directing the Priest to turn to the altar. Assuming that he has been facing the people for the dialogue this would the ancient and continuous practice of the ad orientem position i.e. facing East with the people.

THE EUCHARISTIC PRAYER OR CANON OF THE MASS (BCP 1549)

¶ Then the Priest, turnyng hym to the Altar, shall saye or syng, playnly and distinctly, this prayer folowyng:

ALMIGHTIE and everlivyng GOD, whiche by thy holy Apostle haste taught us to make prayers and supplicacions, and to geve thankes for al menne:

* COMMEMORATION OF THE LIVING AS IN THE ROMAN CANON.

We humbly beseche thee moste mercyfully to receive these our praiers, which we offre unto thy divine Majestie, beseching thee to inspire continually the universal churche with the spirite of trueth, unitie, and concorde: And graunt that al they that do confesse thy holy name, maye agree in the trueth of thy holye worde, and live in unitie and godly love. 

Speciallye we beseche thee to save and defende thy servaunt Edwarde our Kyng, that under hym we maye be Godly and quietly governed. And graunt unto his whole counsaile, and to all that he put in auctoritie under hym, that they maye truely and indifferently minister justice, to the punishemente of wickednesse and vice, and to the maintenaunce of Goddes true religion and vertue. 

Geve grace (O henvenly father) to all Bishoppes, Pastors, and Curates, that thei maie bothe by their life and doctrine set furthe thy true and lively worde, and rightely and duely administer thy holy Sacramentes: and to al thy people geve thy heavenly grace, that with meke heart and due reverence they may heare and receive thy holy worde, truely servyng thee in holynes and righteousnes all the dayes of their life: 

And we most humbly beseche thee of thy goodnes (O Lorde) to coumfort and succour all them, whyche in thys transytory life be in trouble, sorowe, nede, syckenes, or any other adversitie. And especially we commend unto thy mercifull goodnes, this congregacion which is here assembled in thy name, to celebrate the commemoracion of the most glorious death of thy sonne: 

*  THE FOLLOWING IS A CONTINUATION OF THE ANCIENT INVOCATION OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN AND ALL THE SAINTS  DATING TO THE FIRST CENTURIES OF THE CHURCH - THE COMMUNICANTES 


And here we do geve unto thee moste high praise, and heartie thankes, for the wonderfull grace and vertue, declared in all thy sainctes, from the begynning of the worlde: 

And chiefly in the glorious and moste blessed virgin Mary, mother of thy sonne Jesu Christe our Lorde and God, and in the holy Patriarches, Prophetes, Apostles and Martyrs, whose examples (O Lorde) and stedfastnes in thy fayth, and kepyng thy holy commaundementes, graunt us to folowe. 

We commend unto thy mercye (O Lorde) all other thy servauntes, which are departed hence from us, with the signe of faith, and nowe do reste in the slepe of peace: Graunt unto them, we beseche thee, thy mercy, and everlasting peace, and that, at the day of the generall resurreccion, we and all they which bee of the misticall body of thy sonne, may altogether be set on his right hand, and heare that his most ioyfull voice: 

Come unto me, O ye that be blessed of my father, and possesse the kingdom, whiche is prepared for you from the begynning of the worlde: Graunt this, O father, for Jesus Christes sake, our onely mediatour and advocate.

*  THIS PORTION OF THE CANON IS PATTERNED ON THE HANC IGITUR OF THE ROMAN CANON INCLUDING THE MANUAL SIGNS OF THE CROSS TO BLESS AND SANCTIFY.

O God heavenly father, which of thy tender mercie diddest geve thine only sonne Jesu Christ to suffre death upon the crosse for our redempcion, who made there (by his one oblacion once offered) a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifyce, oblacion, and satysfaccyon, for the sinnes of the whole worlde, and did institute, and in his holy Gospell commaund us, to celebrate a perpetuall memory of that his precious death, untyll his comming again: Heare us (O merciful father) we besech thee; and with thy holy spirite and worde, vouchsafe
______________________________________________________________

* COMPARE THE FOLLOWING TEXTS . . .


CRANMER'S ORIGINAL PRAYER:
to blesse and sanctifie these thy gyftes, and creatures of bread and wyne, that they maie be unto us the bodye and bloude of thy moste derely beloved sonne Jesus Christe. 


LATIN OF THE ROMAN CANON:
benedictam adscriptlam raltam rationabilem acceptabilemque facare digneris: ut nobis Corpus, et Sanlguis fiat dilectissimi Filii tui Domini nostri Jesu Christi 


AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION
to bless approve, ratify, make worthy and acceptable; that it may become for us the Body and Blood of Thy most beloved son Jesus Christ our Lord.


ORDINARIATE RITE
in all things to make this oblation blessed, approved, and accepted, a perfect and worthy offering; that it may become for us the Body and Blood of thy dearly beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ.
______________________________________________________________

Who in the same nyght that he was betrayed: tooke breade, and when he had blessed, and geven thankes: he brake it, and gave it to his disciples, saiyng: Take, eate, this is my bodye which is geven for you, do this in remembraunce of me.

Likewyse after supper he toke the cuppe, and when he had geven thankes, he gave it to them, saiyng: drynk ye all of this, for this is my bloude of the newe Testament, whyche is shed for you and for many, for remission of synnes: do this as oft as you shall drinke it, in remembraunce of me.



The Mass, from a 15th C, Prymer

Here the priest must take the bread into his handes.

Here the priest shall take the Cuppe into his handes.




WHERFORE, O Lorde and heavenly father, accordyng to the Instytucyon of thy derely beloved sonne, our saviour Jesu Christ, we thy humble servauntes do celebrate, and make here before thy divine Majestie, with these thy holy giftes, the memoryall whyche thy sonne hath wylled us to make, havyng in remembraunce his blessed passion, mightie resurreccyon, and gloryous ascencion, renderyng unto thee most hartie thankes, for the innumerable benefites procured unto us by the same, entierely desiryng thy fatherly goodnes, mercifully to accepte this our Sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving: 

most humbly beseching thee to graunt, that by the merites and death of thy sonne Jesus Christ, and through faith in his bloud, we and al thy whole church, may obteigne remission of our sinnes, and all other benefites of hys passyon. And here wee offre and present unto thee (O Lorde) oure selfe, oure soules, and bodies, to be a reasonable, holy, and lively sacrifice unto thee: 

humbly besechyng thee, that whosoever shalbee partakers of thys holy Communion, maye worthely receive the most precious body and bloude of thy sonne Jesus Christe: and bee fulfilled with thy grace and heavenly benediccion, and made one bodye with thy sonne Jesu Christe, that he maye dwell in them, and they in hym.

*  THE ABOVE LANGUAGE IS CLEAR INDICATION OF THE REAL PRESENCE OF CHRIST AND THE SACRAMENTAL RECEPTION OF HIS BODY AND BLOOD.

And although we be unworthy (through our manyfolde synnes) to offre unto thee any Sacryfice: Yet we beseche thee to accepte thys our bounden duetie and service, and commaunde these our prayers and supplications,

*  FOLLOWING IS CRANMER'S INCLUSION OF AN ANCIENT PART OF THE EUCHARISTIC PRAYER PRESERVED IN THE ROMAN CANON AND ALSO HERE IN THE FIRST BCP CANON OF THE MASS.

by the Ministery of thy holy Angels, to be brought up into thy holy Tabernacle before the syght of thy dyvine majestie; not waiyng our merites, but pardonyng our offences, through Christe our Lorde, by whome, and with whome, in the unitie of the holy Ghost: all honour and glory, be unto thee, O father almightie, world without ende. Amen.

* OUR FATHER / THE LORD'S PRAYER IN THE SAME SITUATION AS THE ROMAN CANON. THIS WAS LATER CHANGED

Let us praye.

As our saviour Christe hath commaunded and taught us, we are bolde to saye. Our father, whyche art in heaven, halowed be thy name. Thy Kyngdome come. Thy wyll be doen in yearth, as it is in heaven. Geve us this daye our dayly breade. And forgeve us our trespaces, as wee forgeve them that trespasse agaynst us. And leade us not into temptacion.
The aunswere. But deliver us from evill. Amen.

Then shall the priest saye.

* THE FOLLOWING WORDS SPEAKING OF THE PASCHAL SACRIFICE ARE IN CONFORMITY WITH THE ROMAN CANON.

The peace of the Lorde be alwaye with you.

The Clerkes. And with thy spirite.

The Priest. Christ our Pascall lambe is offred up for us, once for al, when he bare our sinnes on hys body upon the crosse, for he is the very lambe of God, that taketh away the sines of the worlde: wherfore let us kepe a joyfull and holy feast with the Lorde.


* NOTICE THE FOLLOWING WORDS OF ADMINISTRATION OF THE BLESSED BODY AND BLOOD OF CHRIST CONFORM TO THE ROMAN CANON AND THE DOCTRINE OF THE REAL PRESENCE. THESE WORDS WERE CHANGED IN LATER PRAYER BOOKS REFLECTING THE CALVINISTIC AND ZWINGLIAN DRIFT THAT CRANMER AND OTHERS WERE FOLLOWING.

¶ And when he delivereth the Sacramente of the body of Christe, he shall say to every one these words.

The body of our Lorde Jesus Christe whiche was geven for thee, preserve thy bodye and soule unto everlasting lyfe.

And the Minister delivering the Sacrament of the bloud, and geving every one to drinke once and no more, shall say,

The bloud of our Lorde Jesus Christe which was shed for thee, preserve thy bodye and soule unto everlastyng lyfe.

If there be a Deacon or other Priest, then shal he folow with the Chalice: and as the Priest ministereth the Sacrament of the body, so shal he (for more expedition) minister the Sacrament of the bloud, in fourme before written.

From this comparison of the Roman Canon with the Ordinariate rite and the first Book of Common Prayer we see many of the common elements which have been preserved in all three.

The real deviations in eucharistic prayers followed progressively through the history of Anglicanism (1552 - 16620 and to the point now that many of the rites in use around the world today vary greatly from these three similar and comparable canons of the Mass.

Anglo-Catholics, of course, find the Ordinariate rite very similar to the canons they have used since the nineteenth century.  

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